This #animation describes the role of the #insulinreceptor in #type2diabetes . It focuses on the very recent #discovery of how the #hormone#insulin actually binds to the #receptor on the surface of cells, as determined by Professor Mike Lawrence's #laboratory at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute.
The receptor itself actually spans the #cellmembrane , so it has a part outside, a part inside, and insulin binds to the part that is outside. Insulin is a #smallmolecule whose structure was determined a long time ago in 1969, but it's been #unknown how it interacts with the receptor, and that is what we have discovered, and it's interaction are characterized as a molecular handshake as the two proteins dot together.
When insulin binds to the outside parts of the receptor, it brings the two halves of the receptor together, and at the same time, the two parts inside of the cell unwind and make contact. These two proteins then activate each other.
This activation allows the insulin signal to enter the cell. Specialized proteins interact with the activated receptor just below the cell surface. The receptor activates these proteins, and they, in turn, are able to activate multiple other proteins in a long signal cascade. This complex #signaling process eventually tells the cell to take up #glucose for use as an energy source. The long #signalcascade allows tight control of the signaling process as it can be turned on or off at many different points along the way.
In type 2 #diabetes , we believe insulin binds to its receptor normally, but the signal is not sending to the cell, and the signal cascade does not develop this is known as #insulinresistance . This means that glucose cannot enter the cell and #bloodglucose remains high. Over time high glucose levels damage many different organs. / Maja Divjak, 2014 wehi.tv @wehi_research#endocrinology#endocrinologia#diabetestype1#diabetesawareness#publichealth#cellbiology#molecularbiology ...