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Chloropicrin, also known as nitrochloroform, is an agricultural and residential fumigant with broad activity against microbes, fungi, insects, nematodes, and weeds. It was discovered and named by John Stenhouse in 1848, from a complex reaction of picric acid and bleach (sodium hypochlorite). The modern synthesis of chloropicrin is via chlorination of nitromethane with bleach. Chloropicrin is a colorless liquid that is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It has an irritating odor that induces tearing and vomiting, and was used in World War I as a chemical weapon referred to as Aquinite, Klop, Agent PS, or simply

Chloropicrin, also known as nitrochloroform, is an agricultural and residential fumigant with broad activity against microbes, fungi, insects, nematodes, and weeds. It was discovered and named by John Stenhouse in 1848, from a complex reaction of picric acid and bleach (sodium hypochlorite). The modern synthesis of chloropicrin is via chlorination of nitromethane with bleach. Chloropicrin is a colorless liquid that is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It has an irritating odor that induces tearing and vomiting, and was used in World War I as a chemical weapon referred to as Aquinite, Klop, Agent PS, or simply "vomiting gas". The biological mechanism of action for chloropicrin is not well known, but likely involves metabolism to the highly reactive molecule thiophosgene. #forbiddensnacks #chemistry #organicchemistry #inorganicchemistry #chemistrylab #chemistry_lab #chemistrylife #chemistrylove #chemistryfun #chemistryisfun #chemistrydaily #chemistrynotes #chemistryeducation #chemistryclass #chemistryteacher #chemistrystudent #quimica #chemie #chemical #chemicals #molecule #molecules #moleculeoftheday #picrin #picric #picricacid #chloropicrin #fumigation #fumigant #fumigants ...

Molybdenum is a chemical element.
Symbol: Mo
Appearance: gray metallic
Standard atomic weight(Mo): 95.95
Atomic number: 42
Group: 6
Period: Period 5
Block: d-block
Element category: Transition metal
Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d5 5s1
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 13, 1

Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid
Melting point: 2896 K ​(2623 °C, ​4753 °F)
Boiling point: 4912 K ​(4639 °C, ​8382 °F)
Density (near r.t.): 10.28 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.): 9.33 g/cm3
Heat of fusion: 37.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 598 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 24.06 J/(mol·K)

Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −4, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 2.16
Ionization energies: 1st - 684.3 kJ/mol
2nd - 1560 kJ/mol
3rd - 2618 kJ/mol
Atomic radius: empirical - 139 pm
Covalent radius: 154±5 pm
Natural occurrence: primordial
Crystal structure: ​body-centered cubic (bcc)

Discovery: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1778) 
The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.
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Molybdenum is a chemical element. Symbol: Mo Appearance: gray metallic Standard atomic weight(Mo): 95.95 Atomic number: 42 Group: 6 Period: Period 5 Block: d-block Element category: Transition metal Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d5 5s1 Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 13, 1 Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid Melting point: 2896 K ​(2623 °C, ​4753 °F) Boiling point: 4912 K ​(4639 °C, ​8382 °F) Density (near r.t.): 10.28 g/cm3 when liquid (at m.p.): 9.33 g/cm3 Heat of fusion: 37.48 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 598 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity: 24.06 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −4, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a strongly acidic oxide) Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 2.16 Ionization energies: 1st - 684.3 kJ/mol 2nd - 1560 kJ/mol 3rd - 2618 kJ/mol Atomic radius: empirical - 139 pm Covalent radius: 154±5 pm Natural occurrence: primordial Crystal structure: ​body-centered cubic (bcc) Discovery: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1778) The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. #chemistry #periodic_table #chemicals #elements #molecule #atoms #chemistry_love #chemist #all_about_chemistry #chemistry_memes #chemistry_magic #chemistry_lovers #chemistry_vibes #IYPT2019 #chem #chemistry_lab #chemicalguys #chemistrynotes #chemistryexperiments #chemistryeducation #chemistryisfun #chemistrylife #chemistryday #chemistrystudents #chemistryislife #quimica #ilovechemistry #scientist #laboratory #lab ...

Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element.
Symbol: Nb (formerly Cb)
Appearance: gray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Standard atomic weight(Nb): 92.90637
Atomic number: 41
Group: 5
Period: Period 5
Block: d-block
Element category: Transition metal
Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 12, 1

Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid
Melting point: 2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F)
Boiling point: 5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F)
Density (near r.t.): 8.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion: 30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 24.60 J/(mol·K)

Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −3, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 1.6
Ionization energies: 1st - 652.1 kJ/mol
2nd - 1380 kJ/mol
3rd - 2416 kJ/mol
Atomic radius: empirical - 146 pm
Covalent radius: 164±6 pm
Natural occurrence: primordial
Crystal structure: body-centered cubic (bcc)

Discovery: Charles Hatchett (1801)

Niobium is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium[contradictory], and it has similar ductility to iron. Niobium oxidizes in the earth's atmosphere very slowly, hence its application in jewelry as a hypoallergenic alternative to nickel. Niobium is often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name

Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element. Symbol: Nb (formerly Cb) Appearance: gray metallic, bluish when oxidized Standard atomic weight(Nb): 92.90637 Atomic number: 41 Group: 5 Period: Period 5 Block: d-block Element category: Transition metal Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d4 5s1 Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 12, 1 Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid Melting point: 2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F) Boiling point: 5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F) Density (near r.t.): 8.57 g/cm3 Heat of fusion: 30 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 689.9 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity: 24.60 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −3, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide) Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 1.6 Ionization energies: 1st - 652.1 kJ/mol 2nd - 1380 kJ/mol 3rd - 2416 kJ/mol Atomic radius: empirical - 146 pm Covalent radius: 164±6 pm Natural occurrence: primordial Crystal structure: body-centered cubic (bcc) Discovery: Charles Hatchett (1801) Niobium is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium[contradictory], and it has similar ductility to iron. Niobium oxidizes in the earth's atmosphere very slowly, hence its application in jewelry as a hypoallergenic alternative to nickel. Niobium is often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name "columbium". Its name comes from Greek mythology, specifically Niobe, who was the daughter of Tantalus, the namesake of tantalum. The name reflects the great similarity between the two elements in their physical and chemical properties, making them difficult to distinguish. #chemistry #periodic_table #chemicals #elements #molecule #atoms #chemistry_love #chemist #all_about_chemistry #chemistry_memes #chemistry_magic #chemistry_lovers #chemistry_vibes #IYPT2019 #chem #chemistry_lab #chemicalguys #chemistrynotes #chemistryexperiments #chemistryeducation #chemistryisfun #chemistrylife #chemistryday #chemistrystudents #chemistryislife #quimica #ilovechemistry #scientist #laboratory #lab ...

Zirconium is a chemical element.
Symbol: Zr
Appearance: silvery white
Standard atomic weight(Zr): 91.224
Atomic number: 40
Group: 4
Period: Period 5
Block: d-block
Element category: Transition metal
Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 10, 2

Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid
Melting point: 2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
Boiling point: 4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F)
Density (near r.t.): 6.52 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.): 5.8 g/cm3
Heat of fusion: 14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 591 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 25.36 J/(mol·K)

Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −2, +1, +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 1.33
Ionization energies: 1st - 640.1 kJ/mol
2nd - 1270 kJ/mol
3rd - 2218 kJ/mol
Atomic radius: empirical - 160 pm
Covalent radius: 175±7 pm
Natural occurrence: primordial
Crystal structure: ​hexagonal close-packed (hcp)

Discovery: Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)

It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal  that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety of inorganic  and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium compounds have no known biological role. #chemistry #periodic_table #chemicals #elements #molecule #atoms #chemistry_love #chemist #all_about_chemistry #chemistry_memes #chemistry_magic #chemistry_lovers #chemistry_vibes #IYPT2019 #chem #chemistry_lab #chemicalguys #chemistrynotes #chemistryexperiments #chemistryeducation #chemistryisfun #chemistrylife #chemistryday #chemistrystudents #chemistryislife #quimica #ilovechemistry #scientist #laboratory #lab.

Zirconium is a chemical element. Symbol: Zr Appearance: silvery white Standard atomic weight(Zr): 91.224 Atomic number: 40 Group: 4 Period: Period 5 Block: d-block Element category: Transition metal Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d2 5s2 Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 10, 2 Physical properties:- Phase at STP: solid Melting point: 2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F) Boiling point: 4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F) Density (near r.t.): 6.52 g/cm3 when liquid (at m.p.): 5.8 g/cm3 Heat of fusion: 14 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 591 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity: 25.36 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties:- Oxidation states: −2, +1, +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide) Electronegativity: Pauling scale - 1.33 Ionization energies: 1st - 640.1 kJ/mol 2nd - 1270 kJ/mol 3rd - 2218 kJ/mol Atomic radius: empirical - 160 pm Covalent radius: 175±7 pm Natural occurrence: primordial Crystal structure: ​hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Discovery: Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789) It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium compounds have no known biological role. #chemistry #periodic_table #chemicals #elements #molecule #atoms #chemistry_love #chemist #all_about_chemistry #chemistry_memes #chemistry_magic #chemistry_lovers #chemistry_vibes #IYPT2019 #chem #chemistry_lab #chemicalguys #chemistrynotes #chemistryexperiments #chemistryeducation #chemistryisfun #chemistrylife #chemistryday #chemistrystudents #chemistryislife #quimica #ilovechemistry #scientist #laboratory #lab ...